2022-01-03

文法 Subjunctive 假設語氣/虛擬式 :為什麼這個子句中主詞單數卻接原形動詞? 布瓜?

By dewdewcheng

我都不知道英文也有Subjunctive(假設語氣/虛擬式)(以前法文學虛擬式時還要多背一個動詞變化的規則,超煩der)!虛擬式較為正式且用在書寫時居多(學校考試的選擇題偏偏平時考超愛考的耶)。

Subjunctive的時候,動詞使用原形,即使前面的主詞是第三人稱單數,動詞不變化

使用Subjunctive時,是用在尚未發生的情形、或是假設的情境,不會用在已經發生的事件上。

情況1. 用動詞表達出希望、渴望、命令、要求等,後面加上that子句。

有經常搭配使用的動詞,像是 advise, ask, command, demand, desire, insist, order, propose, recommend, request, suggest 等等,這幾個常用動詞後面that所接的子句中,用虛擬式動詞不變化

例句:

I suggest that she wait a few weeks. (現在式)

I recommend that he see a lawyer.

I insisted that he wait. (過去式)(口語上I insisted that he waited.也可以)

She requested that she be allowed to leave.

They advise that a passport be carried with you at all times.

Mom demands that Peter get home before dark.

情況2. 同上的情境,但是改以名詞表達的句型。

使用的名詞如:command, demand, order, proposal, recommendation, request, suggestion

例句:

The president has issued an order that the secretary resign next month.

He made a proposal that the company buy more land.

They made a suggestion that we be early.

情況3. 用形容詞表達適當的/渴望的,後面加上that子句。

a) advisable, best, crucial, desirable, essential, important, necessary, unthinkable, urgent, recommended,..etc
b) anxious, determined, eager, keen

例句:

It is vital that your staff understand the importance of protecting personal data.

It is necessary that everyone be here on time.

We were determined that it remain a secret.

情況4. 否定時直接在subjunctive的子句中,動詞前方加上NOT

We have made a request that we not be disturbed.

Fred advises that Sue not take this job.

情況5. 固定用法(Fixed Expression)

God bless America.

Long live the President.

Heaven help us.


所以這題答案是:
take

這個文法有更多線上練習題,點下START就可以開始喔。

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